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A number of peremptory "solutions of the problem" have been announced in mathematical physics, then discreetly withdrawn…. The following sections are included: Index.

- Random time generator.
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System Upgrade on Feb 12th During this period, E-commerce and registration of new users may not be available for up to 12 hours. For online purchase, please visit us again. Full Book View. Purchase Save for later Item saved, go to cart. ISBN: hardcover Checkout. ISBN: softcover Checkout. ISBN: ebook Checkout. Description Chapters Reviews Supplementary This book is made up of two essays on the role of time in probability and quantum physics. Free Access. Abstract PDF Preview Abstract After the series of lectures given in by Professor Kai Lai Chung at the Group of Mathematical Physics in Lisbon, where he described many kinds of random time, we started to talk more generally about the strange status of probability theory in quantum mechanics.

Generalized Kinetic Models in Applied Sciences. Chance and Choice. Analytical Mechanics. Complex Quantum Systems. Transformation Groups and Lie Algebras. If you're looking to add a little bit more control to the range of random values you can type random minValOrArray, maxValOrArray ;.

## Random Time Generator

Okay, so what's happening here and how exactly is this different? In the previous example you only provided one value, which was the maximum allowed value. In this example we are able to set both a minimum and maximum value, allowing us define a custom range of values. If the expression above was applied to the opacity property, we would generate random numbers between 40 and 75 every frame.

You can type any number you want for the minimum and maximum values, but the smaller number should always be the first number. Interestingly, note that if you typed random 0, ; for opacity this would be the exact same as typing random ; because 0 is already the minimum value allowed, and is already the maximum value. Pay attention to the property's value limitations when typing out your expressions and this could help you keep your code clean.

Make your Random Feel Natural. Have you ever heard of Gaussian distribution? Not many people have, and though that may sound complex it's fairly simple to wrap your head around. Neat image, but how does this apply to this random expression in After Effects? Instead of a uniform distribution of the random values, gaussian distribution will help achieve a more natural look by using a falloff equation.

Stay with me here As your values get further from the middle number it will be chosen less. If this was a raffle between people you would want to be number Your odds of winning would be dramatically better than poor person number 1 or ! Here is what gaussRandom looks like in code form:. Like we explained for the random ; expression above, you can also choose between providing a single value or a range of values for the gaussRandom ; expression.

How to Control the Random Expression. If you just stick with the random ; expression by itself, what plays back will be different every time. Thankfully the Adobe After Effects team hooked us up with an expression that can help us out. Random Consistency. Using the seedRandom method will allow you replay the same random movements every time. This is achieved by setting the "seed" value, which will tell After Effects which random algorithm pattern to choose and then use during each playback.

To be clear seedRandom actually won't work by itself. We need to complete this code by using one of the expressions we previously covered. Below I will add in a seed value, and then complete the code by calling the gaussRandom method. Using this small snippet of code you now have a lot more control over your animations. Also, you can exchange gaussRandom ; with random ; to produce a different look. I should warn you though, the same seed will use the same randomness regardless of the layer it's used on. For example, if you copy and paste an expression from one layer's position to another, they will move in the same exact pattern.

To fix this simply change the seed and it will move differently. True or False. Something that may be confusing about seedRandom ; is the timeless argument. What happens if you change it to true?

## Generate Random Clock Time

It's quite simple and i'll use GIFs to help you wrap your head around how it works. The following GIF has been slowed down with an expression posterizeTime ;. If you leave the timeless argument equal to false your value will change each frame. In the example below the Timeless set to "true".

Setting it "true" makes the seed "timeless" which means it stays the same on each frame, but it will still choose a random value. Simply change the seed value if you want a different opacity value. Setting a specific seed value every time you implement this code can be tedious. Here's a simple solution that will lift some of that burden and help save you time. Instead of typing in a numerical value, you can have After Effects use the layers number.

If you use index in your expression for layer 20, then the seed number will be Doing this will make sure that changes in value won't follow the same patterns of other layers in your composition. To accomplish this simply type the word index where the seed value goes, like so:. This is extremely helpful if you are copying and pasting expressions across several layers, and will save you time from going into each layer and changing the seed. Let's take some of that knowledge we just learned and show you something cool! Here's a rig that randomly offset when a layer should animate on.

We used the random expression in this example to let After Effects offset and choose when our animation should start!

### How to Generate a random time and date together

What's great is that it is random for every layer. Could you imagine having more circles than that? Without the random expression you'd have to animate each one of them differently or even offset each layer. That would take a really long time! The example above utilizes a little more expression knowledge than we explained here, so we're going to give away the project file for free!

And, since there is a little bit more expression magic happening in this file I sprinkled in a few notes to help you reverse engineer the project.